Past Perfect Tense is refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to clear that one happened another in the past.
5 Types of Past Perfect Tense:
- Negative Interrogative
- ‘Wh-word’ with Interrogative
Formula: Subject + had + V3 + object
- Rakesh had gone to college.
- Radhika had eaten mango.
- You had written an application.
- They had played cricket.
- She had drunk coffee.
Formula: Subject + had + not + V3 + object
- Rakesh had not gone to college.
- Radhika had not eaten mango.
- You had not written an application.
- They had not played cricket.
- She had not drunk coffee.
Formula: Had + subject + V3 + object?
- Had Rakesh gone to college?
- Had Radhika eaten mango?
- Had you written an application?
- Had they played cricket?
- Had She drunk coffee?
Formula: Had + subject + not + V3 + object?
- Had Rakesh not gone to college?
- Had Radhika not eaten mango?
- Had you not written an application?
- Had they not played cricket?
- Had she not drunk coffee?
‘Wh-word’ with Interrogative
Formula: Wh-word + had + subject + V3 + object?
- Where had Rakesh gone?
- What had Radhika eaten?
- What had you written?
- What had they played?
- What had she drunk?
Uses of Past Perfect Tense:
1 In this tense, the work completed first is denoted with Past Perfect & the work completed lated is denoted by the Past Simple.
- She had finished her work before I came.
- The bus had left the bus stop before I reached.
2 When two works goes simultaneously, then Past Simple is used in both the clause.
- The baby can cry as soon as he is born.
3 Single happening of the past is not expressed in the Past Perfect Tense.
- She sang a song yesterday.
4 “Simple Past Tense” or “Present Perfect” or Direct Speech is converted into Past Perfect Tense or Indirect speech.
Direct: She said, “I sang a song”
Indirect: She said that she has sung a letter.
5 In the conditional clause in which the condition is not fulfilled in the past.
- If you had reach the school in time you would have met with your friend.
6 To express the desire which has not been fulfilled in the past with wish, would sooner / rather, if only, as if, as + ought.
- In only I had seen the number of two wheelers.